Canadian Health&Care Mall decides to grapple with immunology as science, looks through its development during centuries. Immunology as a certain direction of researches arose from practical need of fight against infectious diseases. There are evidence that the first vaccination was carried out in China for one thousand years B.C. Inoculation of pock to healthy people for the purpose of their protection against an acute form of disease extended then to India, Asia Minor, Europe, to the Caucasus. However reception of artificial infection with natural smallpox not in all cases yielded positive results. Sometimes after inoculation the acute form of disease and even death was noted.
Inoculation was succeeded by a vaccination method developed at the end of XVIII century by English doctor E. Jenner. He paid attention to that fact that the dairymaid who were looking after sick animals sometimes got sick in the weakest form with smallpox of cows, but thus never had natural smallpox. Similar supervision gave the real chance of fight against the illness in the researcher’s hands. In 1796, in 30 years after the beginning of the researches, E. Jenner decided to approve a vaccination method cow smallpox. Experiment took place successfully, and since then the way of vaccination according to E. Jenner found broad application around the world.
The birth of infectious immunology is connected with a name of the outstanding French scientist Louis Paster. The first step to purposeful search of the vaccinal preparations creating steady immunity to an infection was made after well-known supervision of Paster over pathogenicity of the causative agent of chicken cholera. It was shown that infection of hens with the weakened culture of the activator creates immunity to pathogenic microbe (1880). In 1881 Paster showed effective approach to immunization of cows against splenic fever, and in 1885 he managed to show possibility of protection of people against rage.
Canadian Health&Care Mall points out that though Paster is considered the founder of infectious immunology, he knew nothing about the factors included in process of protection against infection. First who shed light on one of immunity mechanisms were Behring and Kitasato. They showed that serum from mice, previously the immunizing tetanus toxoid, entered by an intact animal, protects the last from lethal dose of toxin. The serumal factor formed as a result of immunization – anti-toxin – represented the first found specific antibody. The works of these scientists laid the foundation to studying of mechanisms of humoral immunity.Tags: Immunity, immunology, Inoculation, pathogenic microbe, researches